Lahore (/lə h ər/) is the capital city of the province of Punjab, the second-largest metropolitan area in Pakistan and the 18th-most-populous city in the world. It is an important historical centre in South Asia. With a rich history dating back over a millennium, Lahore is a main cultural centre of the Punjab region and Pakistan, and is the largest Punjabi city in the world. Lahore remains an economic, political, transportation, entertainment and educational hub in Pakistan.
Lahore (ancient Lava Puri named after Lava, son of Rama) served as the regional capital of the empires of the Hindu Shahi Kingdom in the 11th century, the Ghaznavids in the 12th century, the Ghurid State in the 12th and 13th centuries and the Mughal Empire in the 16th century.
From 1802 to 1849, Lahore served as the capital city of the Sikh Empire. In the mid-19th and early 20th centuries Lahore was the capital of the Punjab region under the British Raj. The traditional capital of Punjab for a millennium, Lahore was the cultural centre of the northern Indian subcontinent which extends from the eastern banks of the Indus River to New Delhi. Mughal structures such as the Badshahi Mosque, the Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, the Mausoleums of Jehangir and Nur Jahan are some of the major tourist attractions in the city. Lahore is also home to many British colonial structures built in the Indo-Saracenic style, such as the General Post Office, Lahore Museum and many older universities and colleges.
Lahore is referred to as the cultural heart of Pakistan as it hosts most of the arts, cuisine, festivals, music, film-making, gardening and intelligentsia of the country. The city has always been a centre for publication, where 80% of Pakistan's books are published, and it remains the foremost centre of literary, educational and cultural activity in Pakistan.
It is also home to hundreds of temples, mosques, churches and shrines. According to a 1998 census, Lahore's population was 6,319,000. In July 2014, Index Mundi put the population of the city at 7,566,000. An estimate in January 2015 gave the population of the Lahore agglomeration as 10,052,000. It is ranked 34 in the most-populated urban areas in the world and the 8th largest city within the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Before Genghis Khan died, he assigned Ögedei Khan as his successor and split his empire into khanates among his sons and grandsons. He died in 1227 after defeating the Western Xia. He was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia at an unknown location. His descendants extended the Mongol Empire across most of Eurasia by conquering or creating vassal states out of all of modern-day China, Korea, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and substantial portions of modern Eastern Europe, Russia, and Southwest Asia. Many of these invasions repeated the earlier large-scale slaughters of local populations. As a result Genghis Khan and his empire have a fearsome reputation in local histories.
Beyond his military accomplishments, Genghis Khan also advanced the Mongol Empire in other ways. He decreed the adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empire's writing system. He also practiced meritocracy and encouraged religious tolerance in the Mongol Empire while unifying the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia.
Condemned throughout most of history for the brutality of his campaigns, Genghis Khan is also credited with bringing the Silk Road under one cohesive political environment, a time referred to as the Pax Mongolica (the Mongolian Peace). This increased communication and trade from Northeast Asia to Muslim Southwest Asia and Christian Europe, thus expanding the horizons of all three cultural areas.
Edited By Zhou Zhonghui/Modified by Glyn David